Outcome of vascularised muscle pedicle bone graft for scaphoid non-union

Rajat Charan, Pankaj Kumar Verma


Background: The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of vascularised muscle pedicle bone graft for scaphoid non-union.

Methods: 14 men and 6 women aged 18-45 (mean 25) years with non-union of scaphoid involving proximal pole (n=4), waist (n=14), distal pole (n=2) were randomized to undergo vascularised muscle pedicle bone graft with Herbert screw fixation. The mean duration of non-union was 10 months (range 4-14 months).

Results: The mean follow up duration was 24 months. 17 of 20 achieved union. 12 of 20 achieved correction of both scapholunate and radiolunate angle. 5 of 20 did not achieve full correction of sacpholunate and radiolunate angle. 3 of 20 did not achieve union. 2 of these 3 were associated with proximal pole absorption. There was no hardware failure or any iatrogenic fracture during pedicle dissection.

Conclusions: The use of vascularised bone graft has proved to be an effective method for treating scaphoid non-union, especially non-union with an avascular proximal pole and those that have failed to heal after previous procedure.


Scaphoid non-union, Muscle pedicle graft, Avascular proximal pole

Full Text:



Rajagopalan BM, Squire DS, Samuels LO. Results of Herbert-screw fixation with bone-grafting for the treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:48–52.

Lindstrom G, Nystrom A. Natural history of scaphoid non-union, with special reference to “asymptomatic” cases. J Hand Surg Br. 1992;17:697–700.

Dias JJ, Brenkel IJ, Finlay DB. Patterns of union in fractures of the waist of the scaphoid. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1989;71:307–10.

Filan SL, Herbert TJ. Herbert screw fixation of scaphoid fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996;78:519–29.

Robbins RR, Ridge O, Carter PR. Iliac crest bone grafting and Herbert screw fixation of nonunions of the scaphoid with avascular proximal poles. J Hand Surg Am. 1995;20:818–31.

Zaidemberg C, Siebert JW, Angrigiani C. A new vascularized bone graft for scaphoid nonunion. J Hand Surg Am. 1991;16:474–8.

Sunagawa T, Bishop AT, Muramatsu K. Role of conventional and vascularized bone grafts in scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis: a canine experimental study. J Hand Surg Am. 2000;25:849–59.

Green DP. The effect of avascular necrosis on Russe bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion. J Hand Surg Am. 1985;10:597–605.

Braun RM. Pronator pedicle bone grafting in the forearm and proximal carpal row. Orthop Trans. 1983;7:35.

Chacha PB. Vascularised pedicular bone grafts. Int Orthop. 1984;8:117–38.

Kawai H, Yamamoto K. Pronator quadratus pedicled bone graft for old scaphoid fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988;70:829–31.

Herbert TJ. The fractured scaphoid. St Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1990: 31–33.

Herbert TJ, Fisher WE. Management of the fractured scaphoid using a new bone screw. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1984;66:114–23.

Daly K, Gill P, Magnussen PA, Simonis RB. Established nonunion of the scaphoid treated by volar wedge grafting and Herbert screw fixation. J Bone Joint Surg Br .1996;78:530–4.

Bunker TD, McNamee PB, Scott TD. The Herbert screw for scaphoid fractures. A multicentre study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1987;69:631–4.

Russe O. Fracture of the carpal navicular. Diagnosis, non-operative treatment, and operative treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:759–68.

Jiranek WA, Ruby LK, Millender LB, Bankoff MS, Newberg AH. Long-term results after Russe bone-grafting: the effect of malunion of the scaphoid. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74:1217–28.

Stark HH, Rickard TA, Zemel NP, Ashworth CR. Treatment of ununited fractures of the scaphoid by iliac bone grafts and Kirschner-wire fixation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70:982–91.

Cooney WP 3rd, Dobyns JH, Linscheid RL. Nonunion of the scaphoid: analysis of the results from bone grafting. J Hand Surg Am. 1980;5:343–54.