Published: 2016-06-11

Prevalence and pattern of cervical rib, transversomegaly and other vertebral anomalies in normal adult cervical spine in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India

Ganesh Singh Dharmshaktu, Shailendra Singh Bhandari


Background: A supernumary rib from seventh cervical vertebra is called cervical rib and is a common anomaly. Its true prevalence is not validated as most of these are asymptomatic thus do not get diagnosed. Its incidence has been reported in several geographic regions and ethnic clusters. Most of the studies rely on radiological data collected from evaluation of chest or neck radiographs of defined numbers.

Methods: A similar study to ascertain its presence and incidence, apart from sexual and morphological pattern is required for Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India. The present study reports data extracted from study of 1500 radiographs and evaluating them for presence of cervical rib and other abnormalities. Demographic and other relevant details were noted.

Results: Most of the cases were female and almost all cases of cervical rib or transversomegaly were bilateral. 0.8% and 1.4% cases were noted for cervical rib and transversomegaly respectively. Apart from it, 4 cases of vertebrae fusion and one case of hemi-vertebra leading to cervical scoliosis was also noted.

Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical rib was comparable to other studies considering the sample size. The calculation of true incidence however will require multi-discipline collaboration and robust data. This study, however, is important for further work in this regard and adds value to existing literature.


Cervical rib, Block vertebra, Birth defect, Congenital, Transverse process, Human

Full Text:



Gupta A, Gupta DP, Saxena DK, Gupta RP. Cervical Rib: It's Prevalence in Indian Population around Lucknow (UP). J Anat Soc Ind. 2012;61(2):189-91.

Brewin J, Hill M, Ellis H. The prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population. Clin Anat. 2009;22:331-36.

Roos DB. Congenital anomalies associated with thoracic outlet syndrome: anatomy, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Surg. 1976;132:771–8.

Bhat MH, Mir TA, Abdullah I. Prevalence of cervical ribs and elongated transverse processes in Kashmiri population. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;3:3763-5.

Venkatesan V, Prabhu KP, Ram Kumar BR, Joseph C. Incidence of Cervical Rib in Chennai Population. World Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014;10(3):250-3.

Sharma M, Baidwan S, Jindal AK, Gorea RK. A study of vertebral synostosis and its clinical significance. J Punjab Acad Forensic Med Toxicol. 2013;13(1):20-4.

Bokhari RF, Al-Sayyad MJ, Baeesa SS. Prevalence of cervical ribs and elongated transverse processes in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2012;33(1):66-9.