Assessment of foot deformities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Keywords:Foot deformities, Diabetes mellitus, Peripheral neuropathy, Foot ulcer
Background: Affection of lower extremity in diabetic patients leads to development of several foot deformities. The knowledge so far about the particulars of foot deformity in diabetic population is limited. The current study aimed to assess prevalence of foot deformities in known diabetics and to compare it with non-diabetic population. It also aimed to know its association with various risk factors.
Methods: Foot was evaluated for presence of deformity in 80 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and was compared with the control group of 80 non-diabetic individuals. Type of deformity was noted and its prevalence was compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis was done to see the association of foot deformity with various risk factors.
Results: Prevalence of foot deformity was more in diabetics as compared to normal population (p<0.004). Forefoot was involved in majority of cases (84.93%) and nail deformities were most commonly seen (38.35%). Deformities were less common in patients who were aware of diabetic foot care measures (p<0.004) and were more common in presence of diabetic neuropathy, vasculopathy and uncontrolled glycaemic index.
Conclusions: All patients with diabetes should be screened for presence of neuropathy as this is the most common factor for development of a foot deformity and hence a foot ulcer. Other helpful screening measures include assessment for peripheral vascular disease and monitoring of glycaemic index (HbA1c). Patients should be educated about the diabetic foot care measures to avoid potential complications.
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