Osteoarthritis: insights into pathogenesis and futuristic treatment strategies


  • Ajay Singh Department of Medicine, Sri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Vikramaditya Rai Department of Orthopedics, Dr. Rajindra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2047-0531
  • Sushmita Pandey Department of Medicine, Nepal Medical College, Jorpati, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Manisha Chavan Department of Medicine, Kakatiya Medical College, Rangam Peta, Warangal, Telangana, India
  • Deepthi Ketha Department of Medicine, ACSR Government Medical College, Dargamitta, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India




Osteoarthritis, Pathophysiology, Platelet rich plasma, Mesenchymal stem cells, Gene therapy, Monoclonal antibodies


Osteoarthritis is the most common musculoskeletal condition world over that causes significant health, economic, and societal burdens. Till date, no therapeutic approaches have been able to stop or delay the progression of osteoarthritis satisfactorily. Structural and clinical features of the disease are characterized by a high inter-patient variability. This heterogeneity is believed to be a major factor associated with the complexity of osteoarthritis and the on-going difficulty to identify a single therapy for all sub-groups. The objective of this review is to highlight recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and latest biological treatments available, their limitations and to bring to notice the latest state-of-the-art on-going research on novel therapies. For this study we searched different online databases such as PubMed and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2022. We identified eligible studies on the pathophysiologic findings, prevalence, or incidence of knee osteoarthritis, available treatments, and current research for future therapies. Besides the availability of vast literature on cartilage extracellular matrix and its changes in osteoarthritis, the complicated mechanism of the disease still has missing links in the chain. Presently, biological treatments such as platelet rich plasma, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and autologous fragmented adipose tissue containing structural vascular fraction are commonly used. In future, gene therapy could become a potential option for treating the disease. More extensive insights into the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis will be helpful in designing therapies that can curb structural progression and promote cartilage regeneration thus providing more potent relief from painful and disabling condition associated with osteoarthritis.

Author Biographies

Ajay Singh, Department of Medicine, Sri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Resident, Department of Medicine

Vikramaditya Rai, Department of Orthopedics, Dr. Rajindra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

Senior Resident, Department of Orthopedics, RPGMC, Tanda, HP,India

Sushmita Pandey, Department of Medicine, Nepal Medical College, Jorpati, Kathmandu, Nepal

MO, Department of Medicine

Manisha Chavan, Department of Medicine, Kakatiya Medical College, Rangam Peta, Warangal, Telangana, India

Resident, Department of Medicine

Deepthi Ketha, Department of Medicine, ACSR Government Medical College, Dargamitta, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

Resident, Department of Medicine


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