Prevalence and severity of low back pain among postmenopausal women: a community-based study in block Hazratbal of Srinagar district


  • Mohamad Azhar Gilani Department of Orthopaedics, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Syed Najmul Ain Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India



Low back pain, Post menopause, Prevalence


Background: Menopause brings with it a cluster of symptoms and health problems. Low back ache (LBA) decreases the quality of life both socially and economically by increasing sickness absenteeism. Women are more likely to have backache and more so after menopause. Objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of LBA among postmenopausal women and also to assess the severity of the LBA.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in block Hazratbal of district Srinagar, the field practice area of the department of community medicine, Government Medical College (GMC), Srinagar. The data was collected over a period of 3 months in 2018 by consecutive sampling by going door to door in the area. A woman who had attained menopause as per the definition was included in the study.

Results: A total of 198 women were included. Mean age at the time of contact was 53.56 years. The prevalence of LBA among these women was 77.8% (154 of 198 women) with almost 55% women having moderate LBA and 16% women grading their LBA as severe. Those in late menopause were 4 times more likely to have severe LBA than those in early menopause.

Conclusions: The magnitude of LBA among postmenopausal women is huge. About one quarter of these women have severe LBA. Therefore, to maintain a good quality of life of these women, specific measures to tackle this problem must be taken.


Wang YXJ. Menopause as a potential cause for higher prevalence of low back pain in women than in age-matched men. J Orthop Transl. 2017;8:1-4.

Kozinoga M, Majchrzycki M, Piotrowska S. Low back pain in women before and after menopause. Prz Menopauzalny. 2015;14(3):203-7.

Werner EL, Côté P. Low back pain and determinants of sickness absence. Eur J Gen Pract. 2009;15(2):74-9.

Rolli Salathé C, Melloh M, Mannion AF, Tamcan Ö, Müller U, Boos N, et al. Resources for preventing sickness absence due to low back pain. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2012;62(4):273-80.

Andersson GBJ: Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet. 1999;354:581-5.

Dixit R. Low Back Pain. In: Kelley and Firestein’s Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th edition. Elsevier. 2017;696-716.

Palmer KT, Walsh K, Bendall H, Cooper C, Coggon D. Back pain in Britain: Comparison of two prevalence surveys at an interval of 10 years. Br Med J. 2000;320(7249):1577-8.

Ahdhi G, Subramanian R, Saya G, Yamuna T. Prevalence of low back pain and its relation to quality of life and disability among women in rural area of Puducherry, India. Indian J Pain. 2016;30(2):111.

Howkins B. Shaw’s Textbook of Gynaecology. 16th ed. Padubidri V, Daftary SN, editors. Elsevier. 2015;597.

Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J. Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal status. Clin J Pain. 2006;22:325-31.

Mitchell ES, Woods NF. Pain symptoms during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Climacteric. 2010;13:467-78.

Poomalar GK, Bupathy A. The quality of life during and after menopause among rural women. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7:135-9.

Bachmann S, Oesch P. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation for low back pain. Ther Umsch. 2013;70:543-8.

Singh S, Shankar R, Singh GP. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi. Int J Hypertens. 2017;5491838.

Dar IH, Dar SH, Bhat RA, Kamili MA. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in the age group 40 years and above in the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2015;16:187-97.

Heianza Y, Arase Y, Kodama S, Hsieh SD, Tsuji H, Saito K, et al. Effect of postmenopausal status and age at menopause on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in Japanese individuals: Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 17 (TOPICS 17). Diabetes Care. 2013;36(12):4007-14.






Original Research Articles