Epidemiology of fractures in indoor patients at a tertiary care centre in India: a study of 3000 cases

Mohan M. Desai, Deven R. Kuruwa, Easwar Elango, Roshan Wade


Background: Implementing appropriate fracture control measures and treatment protocols is crucial to maximizing health and development gains. This requires an in depth understanding of age-specific, sex-specific and cause-specific injury patterns at the national and subnational levels. No such study on fracture epidemiology has been undertaken in the Indian population.

Methods: Study was conducted in a tertiary care centre (KEM hospital, Mumbai) which is one of the highest volume trauma centres in the country. Data of 3000 patients was obtained from the medical records department for the year 2016-2019. Patients were segregated with respect to their genders and into three age groups. Etiology of fracture was noted, and fractures classified according to the anatomical area. Whether the patient received conservative or operative management was also recorded.

Results: 43.83% of the fractures occurred in 18-50 years age group. 41.33% in the above 50 group and only 14.73% in the below 18 age group. Overall male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. Vehicular accident was the most common mode of injury (47.07%) followed by fall from height (21.03%). Proximal femur fractures were the most common accounting for 19.57% of all fractures followed by forearm (10.53%), tibia diaphysis (8.10%). Talus was the least common. 81.07% cases were managed operatively and 18.93% conserved.

Conclusions: Our study highlights that Indian epidemiology is unique from our Western counterparts. Population affected is much younger, old age males are affected more than females. Lower limb fractures are more prevalent and road traffic accidents are responsible for almost half the fractures.


Age distribution, Sex ratio, Most common, Road traffic accident, India

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