Prevalence of osteoporosis in India: an observation of 31238 adults
Keywords:Osteoporosis, Osteopenia, Bone mineral density, Postmenopausal women, Elderly, India
Background: Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of bone loss (both osteopenia and osteoporosis) at national and regional levels in India.
Methods: In this retrospective study, data obtained from in-clinic screening camps conducted for bone loss was analysed. Participants were apparently healthy adults (aged 18 years and above) evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD) using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of left foot. Based on t score of BMD obtained, participants were labelled as normal (T-score <-1 SD), osteopenia (t score-1 to -2.5 SD) and osteoporosis (t score <-2.5 SD).
Results: In total, data of 31238 participants was analysed retrospectively. Mean age was 47.8±14.2 years and 47.6% were females. Among females, 38.8% were postmenopausal women (age >50 years). Overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 49.9 and 18.3% respectively. Across East, West, North and South India, the prevalence of osteopenia was 51.3, 47.9, 55.6 and 47.4% respectively whereas prevalence of osteoporosis was 18.4, 16.3, 16.4 and 20.7% respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis was slightly higher in females than males (19.4 vs 17.3%). Among postmenopausal women, overall osteoporosis prevalence was 33.1% and ranged from 16.9% in North region to 21.8% South region. Prevalence of osteoporosis (37.0 vs 12.5%) was higher in elderly (≥60 years) than adults (<60 years).
Conclusions: Among adults, nearly one out of two have osteopenia and one out of five have osteoporosis. Osteoporosis prevalence was higher in the women and in the elderly. Nearly one out of three women in postmenopausal age group have osteoporosis. There is no substantial difference across the four regions of the country. Considering the significant prevalence of low BMD, there is need to increase the awareness about bone health in general population.
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