The prevalence of hyperuricemia and its associated risk factors in patients presenting with joint pain in Karachi


  • Muhammad Muzzammil Department of Orthopaedics, Sindh Govt. Services Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Abdul Qadir Department of Orthopaedics, Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Ayesha Mughal Department of Orthopaedics, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Jahazeb Effendi Department of Orthopaedics, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Saeed Minhas Department of Orthopaedics, United Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Syed Jahanzeb Department of Orthopaedics, Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan



Hyperuricemia, Prevalence, Associations, Increase age, Genetic factor, Metabolic syndrome


Background: To determine the prevalence and association of hyperuricemia with genetic factors, dietary and alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome, diuretic use and chronic renal disease in patients presenting with joint pain in the outpatient department (OPD) at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan and to establish a significant correlation between concentration of serum creatinine and triglyceride with uric acid concentration statistically.

Methods: This study was conducted on 2200 patients. The data included age, gender, occupation, genetic factors (family history), dietary and alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity, diuretic use and chronic renal disease. Serum uric acid concentration of 2.4-6.0 mg/dl (female) and 3.4-7.0 mg/dl (male) labelled as normal values. All participants’ serum uric acid concentration compared with serum creatinine and triglyceride concentration.

Results: Overall prevalence of 30.1% (662 patients) hyperuricemia in patients presenting with joint pain. Majority of the patients belonged to age group 30-34 and highest average uric acid value (7.7±2.01) was found to be in the age group of 65 and above. Hyperuricemia was related to increased age (56.25%), genetic factors 159 (24.01%), dietary 370 (55.89%) and alcohol consumption 33 (4.98%), metabolic syndrome (hypertension 146 (22.05%), obesity 121 (18.27%), diuretic use 215 (32.47%) and chronic renal disease 53 (8.00%). On laboratory investigations, hyperuricemia was directly related to serum creatinine and triglyceride.

Conclusions: This study emphasized the high prevalence of hyperuricemia in patients presenting with joint pain and it is directly proportional to the age. Increased serum uric acid levels with increasing age might be secondary to impaired renal function, use of diuretics, and hypertension as commonly seen among elderly patients. Early diagnosis, management of risk factors and treatment will prevent adverse effects on health.



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Original Research Articles