Evaluation of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusions in total knee replacement

Mirza Atif Baig, Srujith Kommera


Background: Total knee replacement (TKR) is associated with substantial blood loss and thus the need for blood transfusions. Risks and costs of allogenic blood transfusions requires strategies to reduce blood loss in surgery. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of tranexamic acid treatment in reducing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements during TKR.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients who were operated for unilateral TKR from January 2016 to January 2019 in Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences. 30 patients were in each control and study groups. In study group 12 mg/kg bolus of tranexamic acid was given as a slow IV dose, 40 minutes before deflation of tourniquet followed by 1.2 mg/kg/hr infusion for 12 hours with standard treatment of hospital and compared to the control group. Later blood loss was compared both intra and post operatively. Fall in haemoglobin after surgery was also compared.

Results: Total blood loss in tranexamic acid group was 543.3±184.85 ml (control group 685.83±176.74 ml) which is statistically significant (p<0.05). Blood loss was markedly decreased in tranexamic acid group (379.16±174 ml in tranexamic acid vs. 513.33±143.89 ml in control group) statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Tranexamic acid is an effective strategy to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement and thus minimizing the need for blood transfusions.


Tranexamic acid, Blood loss, Blood transfusion, Total knee replacement

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